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Issue of Materials – Basis of Inventory Management

Welcome to a journey into the intricate world of materials management. In this article, we delve into the core of a significant aspect in the realm of supply chain logistics – the issue of materials. Have you ever wondered how items are distributed within a store or a warehouse? The process isn’t just about placing products on shelves; it’s a well-orchestrated symphony involving careful planning, precise execution, and a variety of methods to ensure everything functions seamlessly.

The Issue of Materials

At its heart, the issue of materials pertains to the strategic distribution of items from a centralized inventory to various points of use or consumption. This process plays a pivotal role in maintaining an efficient supply chain, ultimately impacting customer satisfaction and operational costs.

How Do You Issue Materials in a Store?

Imagine stepping into a retail store. The items meticulously arranged on the shelves aren’t just randomly placed; they are products of a well-thought-out process. This process involves a series of steps, each contributing to the seamless functioning of the store:

Basic Requirements for Issue of Materials

a) Authorization of Issues:

Before anything can be distributed, proper authorization is essential. This prevents unauthorized personnel from tampering with the inventory and ensures transparency in the distribution process.

b) Identification of Requirements:

Accurate identification of the items required for distribution is crucial. This prevents wastage of resources and ensures that the right products reach the right places at the right time.

c) Timing of Issues:

Timing plays a pivotal role in materials distribution. Whether it’s restocking shelves during non-peak hours or ensuring timely delivery to manufacturing units, timing is a critical factor in maintaining smooth operations.

Requisition Slip:

A requisition slip is a pivotal document in the realm of materials management. Serving as a formal request for the release of materials from inventory, it bridges the gap between demand and supply. This slip contains essential information such as the requester’s details, item specifics, quantities, and intended destination. Authorized by relevant personnel, it ensures accountability and legitimacy. The requisition process involves initiation, authorization, verification, processing, dispatch, and record-keeping. It plays a crucial role in maintaining an efficient supply chain by ensuring accurate and timely distribution of materials to meet operational needs. The requisition slip acts as a guiding beacon, facilitating seamless communication between departments and ensuring that the right products reach the right places, enhancing overall logistics efficiency.

requisition format in issue of materials

Bill of Materials

The Bill of Materials (BOM) is a foundational document in the realm of manufacturing and production. It serves as a comprehensive blueprint that outlines all the components, materials, and sub-assemblies required to create a finished product. This detailed listing not only guides the production process but also ensures accuracy, consistency, and efficient resource management.

Within the BOM, each component is identified with its name, description, quantity, and sometimes even specific part numbers or codes. This meticulous breakdown empowers manufacturers to understand the exact materials needed for each stage of production, from the smallest bolt to the most complex assembly. Additionally, the BOM assists in estimating costs, managing inventory, and planning for procurement.

In essence, the Bill of Materials acts as a bridge between design and production, providing a clear roadmap for bringing concepts to life. Whether it’s a complex machinery or a simple consumer product, the BOM’s role in ensuring seamless production and maintaining product quality cannot be overstated.

BOM sample in issue of materials

Issue of Material – Methods

The efficiency of materials distribution lies in the methods employed. Let’s take a closer look at some commonly used methods and their advantages, disadvantages, and real-life examples.

1. First-in-First-out Method (FIFO)

Ensures older items are used firstPotential wastage if items have a limited shelf life
Reduces the risk of inventory obsolescenceExcess disposal may occur
Particularly useful in industries with perishable goods 
Promotes efficient utilization of inventory 


Consider a bakery using the First-in-First-out (FIFO) method to ensure freshly baked bread is sold before it becomes stale. This method prevents wastage by prioritizing the sale of older loaves, reducing the risk of inventory going to waste. As customers are served with the earliest baked goods first, the bakery maintains product quality while minimizing losses due to spoilage.

2. Last in First Out Method (LIFO)

Reduces taxable income during inflation periods.Can lead to inaccuracies in inventory valuation.
Matches recent costs with recent revenues for tax benefits.Complex financial reporting due to varying inventory costs.
Useful for businesses with rising material costs.Does not reflect actual cost of items in stock accurately.


A hardware store, implementing the LIFO method could mean prioritizing the sale of newly received tools, while retaining older inventory for subsequent sales. This strategy aims to align with the principle of utilizing the most recently acquired items before tapping into existing stock.

FIFO-LIFO- in issue of materials

3. Simple Average Price Method

Provides a balanced view of inventory costsMay not accurately reflect actual item values
Easy to calculateVariability in costs can impact accuracy
Offers simplicity in cost managementPotential distortions in financial reporting


Imagine a grocery store calculating the average cost of a product using historical data through the simple average price method. This method helps determine a balanced cost representation over time, aiding in pricing decisions and maintaining accurate financial records.

4. Weighted Average Price Method

Considers both quantity and unit costs for accuracy.May not accurately reflect the current market conditions.
Offers a balanced valuation of materials over time.Can result in higher costs if prices are rising.
Smoothes out cost fluctuations for stable reporting.Can lead to distorted cost information during volatility.


In the context of a manufacturing facility, applying the weighted average price method involves calculating the average expense of raw materials by factoring in both the quantity used and their corresponding unit costs. This approach provides a more accurate representation of overall material costs, ensuring a balanced assessment that considers varying quantities and prices, thus aiding in effective cost management and decision-making within the production process.

Other Methods

Standard Price Method:

The standard price method, within the context of the issue of materials, involves using a predetermined standard cost for materials. This fixed cost is established based on factors such as historical data, market trends, and internal estimates. It provides a consistent benchmark against which actual material costs can be compared. This method aids in monitoring variations between expected and actual expenses, thus allowing businesses to identify cost discrepancies and potential inefficiencies in their materials management processes.

Specific Price Method:

In the issue of materials, the specific price method entails valuing inventory items at their individual purchase or production costs. This means each item is accounted for based on its unique acquisition price. While this method offers precision in cost calculation, it can lead to complexity when dealing with diverse items. Businesses employing this method must accurately track each item’s price to ensure accurate valuation and cost management within their materials distribution process.

Base Stock Method:

The base stock method focuses on maintaining a predetermined minimum inventory level, known as the base stock. As materials are issued, this method triggers replenishment to maintain the established stock level. By having a set minimum, businesses can ensure continuity in their operations, prevent stockouts, and manage the issue of materials efficiently, maintaining a consistent supply for production or distribution.

Highest in First Out Method (HIFO):

The highest in first out method, a variation of the LIFO method, involves issuing the most recently acquired materials first. In the issue of materials, this approach can impact valuation by using the cost of the latest items for distribution. It can be advantageous in scenarios where materials’ prices are increasing, helping manage costs and taxation, but it might not accurately reflect the actual cost of inventory on hand.

Periodic Simple Average Price Method:

The periodic simple average price method involves calculating the average cost of materials periodically, often at the end of accounting periods. This average is then used as the cost basis for issuing materials during the subsequent period. While relatively straightforward, this method can lead to variances between actual costs and the calculated average, affecting both inventory valuation and cost management.

Moving Simple Average Price Method:

Unlike the periodic approach, the moving simple average price method continuously calculates the average cost of materials after each receipt. As new materials are acquired, the average is adjusted, reflecting recent costs accurately. This dynamic calculation offers a more up-to-date valuation but might be more complex to manage and track in the issue of materials process.

Moving Weighted Average Method:

The moving weighted average method takes into account the quantity and cost of both old and new materials. As materials are issued, the average cost is recalculated to reflect the changing inventory composition. This method can provide a balanced valuation that considers varying quantities and costs, aiding in accurate cost management and issue of materials decisions.

Replacement Price Method:

The replacement price method involves valuing materials based on their current replacement cost rather than historical or initial purchase price. In the issue of materials, this approach reflects the most current market value. However, it can lead to frequent cost adjustments and might not accurately represent the actual cost of items already in inventory.

Next in First Out Method (NIFO):

Similar to FIFO and LIFO, the next in first out method issues materials based on the anticipated order of usage. It considers the next expected materials for distribution. While offering flexibility, this approach requires accurate forecasting and tracking to ensure that materials are indeed used in the order projected.

Reuse Price Method:

The reuse price method involves valuing materials based on their estimated resale or reuse value. In the issue of materials, this approach is particularly relevant when materials can be repurposed or sold after use. It can help businesses optimize their resource utilization and recover some value from their materials.

Inflated Price Method:

The inflated price method entails valuing materials at a price higher than their actual cost. In the issue of materials, this can be used as a conservative approach to ensure that the material costs are not underestimated, which can be particularly relevant when dealing with uncertain or volatile market conditions.

Periodic Weighted Average Price Method:

Similar to the moving weighted average method, the periodic weighted average price method calculates the average cost periodically. This average is then used as the basis for issuing materials during the subsequent period. It aims to balance accuracy and simplicity in cost management within the issue of materials process.


In the intricate dance of supply chain management, the issue of materials emerges as a pivotal choreography. From the nuanced methods of valuation to the precision of requisition slips and the strategic guidance of bill of materials, every element orchestrates a harmonious flow of resources. Whether it’s the prudent selection of pricing methods or the meticulous planning of distribution, the issue of materials takes center stage, ensuring the right items reach their destinations at the right time. Through innovation, calculation, and well-coordinated execution, businesses can harness the power of these techniques to navigate the complexities of inventory management, elevate operational efficiency, and ultimately create a symphony of success in the ever-evolving world of materials distribution.

As we conclude our exploration into the fascinating realm of the “issue of materials,” it’s important to recognize the interconnected nature of various aspects of operations. Just as efficient materials distribution is crucial, understanding the “financial order of operations” ensures a well-balanced approach to resource management. Additionally, optimizing the “warehouse layout” and “receiving area layout” plays a pivotal role in streamlining processes, ultimately impacting the smooth flow of materials within your operation. By delving into these topics collectively, we gain a comprehensive view of how different elements harmonize to create a thriving and efficient business environment.


Q1.What is the “issue of materials” in supply chain management?

The “issue of materials” refers to the strategic process of distributing materials from a central inventory to various points of use or consumption within a supply chain. It involves methods like requisition slips and pricing strategies to ensure seamless distribution and effective resource management.

Q2.Why is the “requisition slip” important in the issue of materials?

The requisition slip is a crucial document that initiates the distribution process. It outlines the items needed, quantities required, and destination for materials. It ensures accountability, accuracy, and proper communication throughout the distribution journey.

Q3.How does the “bill of materials” impact production?

The bill of materials (BOM) is a comprehensive list of components, materials, and sub-assemblies needed to create a finished product. It guides production by providing a blueprint for assembling products, estimating costs, and managing inventory effectively.

Q4.What are some common methods used in the issue of materials?

Several methods are employed to manage the issue of materials, including FIFO, LIFO, weighted average, and specific price methods. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, impacting inventory valuation and cost management.

Q5.How do different pricing methods affect the issue of materials?

Different pricing methods, like standard price, replacement price, and moving weighted average, influence how materials are valued and distributed. These methods impact inventory costs, financial reporting, and decision-making within the issue of materials process.

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